Fluid flow measurement a practical guide to accurate flow measurement.pdf
The vast majority of this book relates to .conventional. flowmeters, for example, the admonition about single-phase flow. Obviously, this comment does not apply to multiphase meters. Other exceptions are noted as they appear.
The book.s general approach is to look first at basic principles, particularly with respect to differential and linear meters and the types used in the oil and gas industry for fluid flow measurement. After a review of basic reference standards, .theory. is turned into .practice,. followed by an overview of fluids and the fluid characteristics. .Flow. itself is examined
next, followed by operating and maintenance concerns. Next, comments are offered on individual meters and associated equipment with a detailed review of the two classes of meters: differential and linear readout systems.
Meter proving systems are covered in detail followed by .loss and unaccounted for. procedures. The book concludes with a discussion of conversion to volumes, conversion of the volumes to billing numbers, and the audit procedures required to allow both parties to agree to the final measurement and money exchange.
Emphasis is not so much on individual meter details as on general measurement requirements and the types of meters available to solve particular problems.
Specifically, this first chapter presents some background information, overviews the requisites for .flow. and defines major terms used throughout the book. Chapter 2 introduces various relevant subjects, starting with basic principles and fundamental equations. Chapter 3 details the types of fluid measurement: custody transfer and non-custody transfer. Chapter 4 is devoted entirely to listing basic reference standards. Chapter 5 applies theory to the real world and describes how various practical considerations make effective meter accuracy dependent on much more than simply the original manufacturer.s specifications and meter calibration. Chapter 6 covers the limitations of obtaining accurate flow measurement because of fluid
characteristics. Chapter 7 looks at flow in terms of characteristics required, measurement units involved, and installation requirements for proper meter operation.
Chapter 8 reviews the necessary concerns of operating the meters properly with examples of real problems found in the field. Chapter 9 covers the maintenance required on real metering systems to allow proper performance over time. Chapter 10 reviews meter characteristics, with comments
on all major meters used in the industry. Chapters 11 and 12 detail head and linear meters. Chapter 13 deals with related readout equipment. Chapter 14 discusses proving systems. Chapter 15 covers material balance calculations and studies (i.e., loss and unaccounted for). Chapter 16 introduces auditing required in oil and gas measurement.