nano technology ebook (3)

RF MEMS Theory, Design, and Technology.pdf

All that I wanted to do is to write a deep book. This is what I kept telling
myself when I took walks and considered writing a book on RF MEMS. I just
wanted to write a book unlike the myriad of ‘‘low-level technical manuscripts’’
in print, a book that covered the theory, design, and technology of RF MEMS
at a reasonably deep level. I started writing the book in October 1999, but had
to delete and rewrite many chapters because the understanding of the electromagnetic
and mechanical analysis of RF MEMS, and their associated reliability
and packaging, actually matured in 2001. I also wanted to tell the reader
everything I knew about this subject, and I only omitted a few things that are
covered under confidentiality and nondisclosure agreements.
I hope that you find this book honest in reporting the status of RF MEMS
technology. We have been under exclusive contracts from the U.S. Government
and, as of September 2002, do not have private investment in RF MEMS.
Sure, it is a great technology, but there are still power handling, reliability, and
packaging concerns; and most importantly, it is not yet clear if RF MEMS can
be produced at less than $1 per unit for large-volume commercial applications.
All of these concerns are presented in the book, together with proposals on how
to solve some of these problems.
In order to write such a book, I have had the pleasure to work with a wonderful
team of scientists in RF MEMS: my graduate students. I have learned to
carefully listen to them and to accept the fact that they know more about their
research than I ever would. I have also learned to hire outstanding students,
ask an inhumane amount of work from them, and then protect them from the
contract monitors—using any means possible—so as to let them explore deeply
many aspects of their work. We have had long discussions about virtually
xvii
everything on RF MEMS and micromachining, and they made sure that I was
not committing any errors or omissions. Some of them have also helped with
the calculations and layout of the chapters. The students are: Chen-Yu Chi,
Thomas Budka, Gildas Gauthier, Andrew Brown, N. Scott Barker, Jeremy
Muldavin, Joseph Hayden, Guan-Leng Tan, Laurent Dussopt, Jad Rizk, and
Bernhard Schoenlinner. I will miss working with them: By summer 2002, all
of them (except Bernhard) will have graduated with a Ph.D. in Electrical
Engineering. Guan-Leng and Jeremy deserve particular thanks because they
contributed the most in terms of helping with the figures and in integrating the
book together. The students will receive 50% of the proceeds of the book.
No book of such detail can be written without help from industry and from
colleagues in the academic sector. I am particularly grateful to the personal
discussions with Professor Nick McGruer (Northeastern University), Rob Mihailovich
(Rockwell Scientific), Captain Rob Reid (AFRL), Ezekiel Kruglick
and Professor Kris Pister (University of California, Berkeley), Dan Hyman
(Xcom Wireless), and Carl Bozler (MIT Lincoln Labs). I have learned quite a
bit from them.
Also, Je¤ DeNatale (Rockwell Scientific), Chuck Goldsmith, Andrew
Malczewski, and Brandon Pillans (all at Raytheon), Professors Linda Katehi,
Clark, Nguyen and Khalil Najafi (University of Michigan), Pierre Blondy
(University of Limoges), Ronn Kliger (Analog Devices), Professors Milton
Feng and C. Liu (University of Illinois), Cli¤ Vaughan (Motorola), Craig
Keast (MIT Lincoln Laboratories), Tomorono Seki (Omron, Japan), Veljko
Milanovic (University of California, Berkeley), Nils Hoivik and Professor Y.
C. Lee (University of Colorado), Hongrui Jiang and Norman Tien (Cornell
University), Professor Darrin Young (Case Western Reserve University), Victor
Lubecke (Lucent Technologies), Aleksander Dec and Professor Ken
Suyama (Columbia University), Professor Chuck Wheeler (University of Arizona),
Professor Jose Lopez-Villegas (University of Barcelona, Spain), Professor
Joe Tauritz (University of Twente, Netherlands), Professor Yongwoo
Kwon (Seoul National University, Korea), Professor Euisik Yoon (KAIST,
Korea), Cimoo Song (Samsung, Korea), Jae-Yeong Park (LG, Korea), Professor
Gary Fedder (Carnegie Mellon University) and Professor Thomas
Weller (University of South Florida) have all sent high-resolution files of their
work or quickly answered questions by email. Thank you.
This book was completed under the generous support of the U.S. taxpayers
in terms of contracts from DARPA, NASA, Air Force Research Labs, Army
Research O‰ce, and the National Science Foundation. In particular, the support
of Dr. John Smith, DARPA, was instrumental in the development of lowloss
RF MEMS phase shifters and in the early-stage reliability work in RF
MEMS switches. Also, the University of Michigan supported this book by
giving me time o¤ when I needed it and by providing all the necessary computer
and printing facilities. Professor George Haddad, the best chairman one
can ever dream of, and Professor Fawwaz Ulaby, have been a source of constant
support at UoM. I am fortunate to have been part of two outstanding
xviii PREFACE
academic institutions: The California Institute of Technology and the University
of Michigan, Ann Arbor. They are quite di¤erent in their outlook on academic
life and their role in society; but at the end of the day, they both strive to
be the best institutions for their role.
On the personal side, no one can live a happy life without an abundance of
love shared with family and friends. There were many people in this country
and in the world who have been very kind to me and who have made my
transition from Lebanon to Europe and the United States as easy as it can be.
No one understands the meaning of being an immigrant unless they are immigrants
themselves, and I can tell you, sometimes it is very hard. Robert Louis
Stevenson said: ‘‘No man is useless while he has a friend.’’ I could not agree
more.
My anchors and family in Pasadena, California (1982–1988) were, and still
are, Dave Rutledge and Dale Yee and their kids; George, Andre, Arianne
and Marc Helou; Rick and Kiyomi Savage (now in Washington State); Bill
Dawkins and his family (now in Washington, D.C.); Tim Kay and his family;
and my roommates, Jamil Taher-Kheli, David Schweizer, and Zoya Popovic
(now in Colorado).
My anchors and family in Ann Arbor, Michigan are Fawwaz, Mary Ann,
Neda, Laith, Ziza, and Jean Ulaby; Emilie and the entire VanDeventer family;
Mariam and Hedger Breed and their four boys; Eric and Cindy Kaldjian and
their three children; Josef and Emily Kellndorfer; Jim Bardwell and Ursula
Jacob; Walid Ali-Ahmad (now in San Francisco); Angelos Alexanian (now in
Boston); and Edward and Natalie Surovell.
When I travel in the United States, I visit and sleep in the homes of Walid
Ali-Ahmad, Tim and Stephanie Kay, Ayman and Rania Fawwaz, and Chen-
Yu and Wen-chi Chi in the Bay area, California; the Dawkins family in Davis,
California; the Mollenkopf family in San Diego; the Helou, Rutledge, Weinreb
and Nahman families in Los Angeles; Jamil Taher-Kheli and Kathy Gregorzek
in Los Angeles; Henri and Karma Chaoul in Chicago; Bob and Gini Pringle,
Rick and Diana Kay, Zoya Popovic and Dana, all in Colorado; the Sweet
family in Utah; Sandra and Greg Shreve, Tom and Sandy Budka, and Angelos
Alexanian in Boston; the Shediac family in Baltimore; the Rutledge family
in Fort-Worth, Texas; the Weikle, Kerr, Crowe, and Mattauch families in
Virginia; the Kormanyos family in Seattle; the Savage family in Richland,
Washington; the Helou family in Puerto Rico; the Frantz family in Louisiana;
Carolyn Frantz, Neda Ulaby, and the Dawkins family in Washington, D.C.;
and my cousins in Indianapolis, Columbus, Cleveland, Pittsburgh, and Boston.
Thank you for opening your homes to me. It is infinitely better to have a dinner
with you and sleep at your place than to stay in a 5-star hotel.
When I travel outside of the United States, I feel at home in France at the
Faloughi and the Audi families in Paris, and I feel welcome in Switzerland at
the Perkins family in Geneva. In the Netherlands, it is Margriet Maria Jacoba
Verhoogt and the entire Verhoogt family in Leiden and Zoeterwoude who
make me feel cherished and loved, and Peter DeMaagt and Sylvia Touw have
PREFACE xix
been good friends. In Greece, the Alexanian family in Athens have treated me
as their son; and in Germany, the Altho¤ family in Gluckburg, the Kellndorfer
family in Trostberg, the Schmidhammer family in Munich, and the Schuller
family in Aachen have all being very loving. Chris and Lynne Mann have
opened their home to me in England, and I must admit that I was taken by
their Luke the destroyer. In Sweden, Herbert and Hannele Zirath and Erik
Kollberg have been wonderful friends. In Japan, Koji Mizuno in Sendai has
been a mentor and a father figure to me; and in Singapore, there is always
Chris Koh (my travel companion) and his mother and sisters waiting for me.
And I promise one day to visit Philip and Trich Stimson in Adelaide, Australia.
And in Lebanon, the Abdallah, Geagea, Fattouh, Malouf, Baraka, Nahman,
Azoury, Soukkar, Dabbous, Hanna, Chaoul, Thabet, and Ali-Ahmad families
always extend a very warm welcome to a crazy expatriate from the United
States. The love and support of my own family, Michel, Badiaa, Uncle Jean,
Tante Lina, Nagy, Maria, Tania, Karim, and Camille, cannot be described in
words.
Finally, one night, after drinking a couple of beers with my students, Joe
Hayden said: ‘‘We talk a lot about you behind your back. But there is one
thing that you need to know. None of us would have stayed in graduate school
had it not been for you.’’ I would like for my students to know that I would not
have remained a professor if it were not for them.


Semiconductor Nanostructures for Optoelectronic Applications.pdf

As we begin the twenty-first century, nanoscience and technology are advancing at a rapid pace and making revolutionary contributions in many fields including electronics,
materials science, chemistry, biology, structures and mechanics, and optoelectronics.Although nanoscience and technology are progressing along many
fronts, the most impressive progress has been made in the area of semiconductor
technology. This book reviews recent progress in semiconductor nanostructure
growth and materials development and also reviews progress in semiconductor
devices using nanostructures, with a particular emphasis on 3D nanostructures that
have emerged during the last 10 years.
Growth
Semiconductor nanostructures have been enabled by the advancements in epitaxial
growth techniques, which are now capable of growing epilayers as thin as one
atomic layer and with interface roughnesses that are a mere fraction of a monolayer.
The development of advanced crystal and thin-film growth technologies capable of
realizing high crystalline quality and purity of materials is an enabling step in bringing
semiconductor devices to reality. These growth techniques are reviewed in
Chapter 2. Chapter 2 starts with an overview of the bulk crystal growth techniques
that are required for obtaining high-quality substrates, then looks at the primary
means for producing high-quality epilayers, including liquid phase epitaxy, vapor
phase epitaxy, molecular beam epitaxy, metalorganic chemical vapor deposition
(MOCVD), and atomic layer epitaxy (ALE), as well as techniques for thin-film
deposition including plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition, electron cyclotron
resonance, vacuum evaporation, and sputtering. Chapter 2 then discusses the
different growth modes of low-dimensional structures such as quantum wires and
quantum dots.

Springer Handbook of Nanotechnology.pdf

On December 29, 1959 at the California Institute of Technology, Nobel Laureate Richard P. Feynman gave a talk at the Annual meeting of the American Physical Society that has become one classic science lecture of the 20th century, titled “There’s Plenty of Room at
the Bottom.” He presented a technological vision of extreme miniaturization in 1959, several years before the word “chip” became part of the lexicon. He talked about
the problem of manipulating and controlling things on a small scale. Extrapolating from known physical laws, Feynman envisioned a technology using the ultimate toolbox of nature, building nanoobjects atom by atom or molecule by molecule. Since the 1980s, many inventions and discoveries in fabrication of nanoobjects have been a testament to his vision. In recognition of this reality, in a January 2000 speech at the same institute, former PresidentW. J. Clinton talked about the exciting promise of “nanotechnology” and the importance of expandingresearch in nanoscale science and engineering. Later that month, he announced in his State of the Union Address an ambitious $ 497 million ederal, multi-agency national nanotechnology initiative (NNI) in the fiscal year 2001 budget, and made the NNI a top science and technology priority.Nanotechnology literally means any technology done on a nanoscale that has applications in the real world. Nanotechnology encompasses production and application of physical, chemical and iological systems at size scales, ranging from individual atoms or molecules to submicron dimensions as well as the integration of the resulting nanostructures into larger systems. Nanofabrication methods include the manipulation or self-assembly of individual atoms, molecules, or molecular structures to produce nanostructured materials and sub-micron devices. Micro- and nanosystems components are fabricated using top-down lithographic and nonlithographic fabrication techniques. Nanotechnology will have a profound impact on our economy nd society in the early 21st century, comparable to that of semiconductor technology, information technology, or advances in cellular and molecular biology. The research and development in nanotechnology will lead to potential breakthroughs in areas such as materials and manufacturing, nanoelectronics, medicine and healthcare, energy, biotechnology, information technology and national security. It is widely felt that nanotechnology will lead to the next industrial revolution.
Reliability is a critical technology for many microand nanosystems and nanostructured materials. No book exists on this emerging field. A broad based handbook is needed. The purpose of this handbook is to present an overview of nanomaterial synthesis, micro/nanofabrication, micro- and nanocomponents and systems, reliability issues (including nanotribology and nanomechanics) for nanotechnology, and industrial applications. The chapters have been written by nternationally recognized experts in the field, from academia, national research labs and industry from all over the world.
The handbook integrates knowledge from the fabrication, mechanics, materials science and reliability points of view. This book is intended for three types of readers: graduate students of nanotechnology, researchers in academia and industry who are active or
intend to become active in this field, and practicing engineers and scientists who have encountered a problem and hope to solve it as expeditiously as possible. The handbook should serve as an excellent text for one or two semester graduate courses in nanotechnology in mechanical engineering, materials science, applied physics, or applied chemistry.
We embarked on this project in February 2002, and we worked very hard to get all the chapters to the publisher in a record time of about 1 year. I wish to sincerely thank the authors for offering to write comprehensive chapters on a tight schedule. This is generally
an added responsibility in the hectic work sc hedules of researchers today. I depended on a large number of reviewers who provided critical reviews. I would like to thank Dr. Phillip J. Bond, Chief of Staff and Under Secretary for Technology, US Department of
Commerce, Washington, D.C. for suggestions for chapters as well as authors in the handbook. I would also like to thank my colleague, Dr. Huiwen Liu, whose efforts during the preparation of this handbook were very useful.
I hope that this handbook will stimulate further interest in this important new field, and the readers of this handbook will find it useful.

The MEMS handbook about Microelctromechanical

In a little time I felt something alive moving on my left leg, which advancing gently forward over my breast,came almost up to my chin; when bending my eyes downward as much as I could, I perceived it to be a human creature not six inches high, with a bow and arrow in his hands, and a quiver at his back.

I had the fortune to break the strings, and wrench out the pegs that fastened my left arm to the ground; for, by lifting it up to my face, I discovered the methods they had taken to bind me, and at th e same time with a violent pull, which gave me excessive pain, I a little loosened the strings that tied down my hair on the left side, so that I was just able to turn my head about two inches.
These people are most excellent mathematicians, and arrived to a great perfection in mechanics by the countenance and encouragement of the emperor, who is a renowned patron of learning. This prince has several machines fixed on wheels, for the carriage of trees and other great weights.
(From Gulliver’s Travels—A Voyage to Lilliput , by Jonathan Swift, 1726.)
The length-scale of man, at slightly more than 10 µm m, amazingly fits right in the middle of the smallest subatomic particle, which is approximately 10 µm m, and the extent of the observable universe, which is of the order of 10 µm m. Toolmaking has always differentiated our species from all others on Earth. Aerodynamically correct wooden spears were carved by archaic Homo sapiens
close to 400,000 years ago. Man builds things consistent with his size, typically in the range of two orders of magnitude larger or smaller than himself. But humans have always strived to explore, build and control the extemes of length and time scales. In the
Voyages to Lilliput and Brobdingnag of Gulliver’s Travels , Jonathan Swift speculates
on the remarkable possibilities that diminution or magnification of physical dimensions provides. The Great Pyramid of Khufu was originally 147 µm high when completed around 2600 B.C.
, while the Empire State Building, constructed in 1931, is 449 m tall. At the other end of the spectrum of manmade artifacts, a dime is slightly less than 2 cm in diameter. Watchmakers have practiced the art of miniaturization since the 13th century. The invention of the microscope in the 17th century opened the way for direct observation of microbes and plant and animal cells. Smaller things were manmade in the atter half of
the 20th century. The transistor in today’s integrated circuits has a size of 0.18µm in production and approaches 10 nm in research laboratories.
Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) refer to devices that have a characteristic length of less than 1 mm but more than 1 µm, that combine electrical and mechanical components and that are fabricated using integrated circuit batch-processing technologies. Current manufacturing techniques for MEMS include surface silicon micromachining; bulk silicon micromachining; lithography, electrodeposition and
plastic molding; and electrodischarge machining. The multi isciplinary field has witnessed explosive growth during the last decade, and the technology is progressing at a rate that far exceeds that of our understanding of the physics involved. Electrostatic, magnetic, electromagnetic, pneumatic and thermal actuators, motors, valves, gears, cantilevers, diaphragms and tweezers of less than 1 00-m size have been fabricated. These have been used as sensors for pressure, temperature, mass flow, velocity, sound and chemical composition; as actuators for linear and angular motions; and as simple components for complex systems such as robots, micro heat engines and micro heat pumps. Worldwide market projections for MEMS devices tend to be optimistic, reaching $30 billion by the year 2004. This handbook covers several aspects of microelectromechanical systems or, more broadly, the art and science of electromechanical miniaturization. MEMS design, fabrication and application as well as the physical modeling of their materials, transport phenomena and operations are all discussed. Chapters on the electrical, structural, fluidic, transport and control aspects of MEMS are included. Other chapters cover existing and potential applications of microdevices in a variety of fields including instrumentation and distributed control. The book is divided into four parts: Part I provides background and physical considerations, Part II discusses the design and fabrication of microdevices, Part III reviews a few of the applications of microsensors and microactuators, and Part IV ponders the future of the field. There are 36 chapters written by the world’s foremost authorities on this mutidisciplinary subject. The contributing authors come from the U.S., China (Hong Kong), Israel, Korea, Sweden and Taiwan and are affiliated with academia, government and industry. Without compromising rigorousness, the text is designed for maximum readability by a broad audience having an engineering or scienc background. As expected when several authors are involved, and despite the editor’s best effort, the different chapters vary in length, depth, breadth and writing style.
The Handbook of MEMS should be useful as a reference book to scientists and engineers already experienced in the field or as a primer to researchers and graduate students just getting started in the art and science of electromechanical miniaturization. The editor-in-chief is very grateful to all the contributing authors for their dedication to this endeavor and selfless, generous giving of their time with no material reward other than the knowledge that their hard work may one day make the difference in someone else’s life. Ms. Cindy Renee Carelli has been our acquisition editor and lifeline to CRC Press.
Cindy’s talent, enthusiasm and indefatigability were highly contagious and percolated throughout the entire endeavor.
Mohamed Gad-el-Hak

Notre Dame, Indiana
1 January 2001

 

 

 

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