Hydraulic Design Manua|.pdf
Hydraulic facilities include open channels, bridges, culverts, storm drains, pump stations, and storm-water quantity and quality control systems. Each can be part of a larger facility that drains water. In analyzing or designing drainage facilities, your investment of time, expense, concentration, and task completeness should be influenced by the relative importance of the facility. This manual provides procedures recommended by the Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) for analyzing and designing effective highway drainage facilities
Manual Revision History
Version Publication Date Summary of Changes
2001-1 October 2001 New manual; replaced 1985 Bridge Division Hydraulic Manual.
2002-1 April 2002 Revision adding English measurement units, deleting unnecessary section on wave runup analysis, streamlining organization, and correcting minor errors.
2002-2 November 2002 Revision updating equations in Chapters 4, 5, and 8; providing new equations on pavement drainage ponding and curb inlets in sag configurations; updating the procedure for on-grade slotted drain inlets, and correcting minor errors.
Conventions and Assumptions
This manual provides information, where possible, in both English standard measurement
units and in metric measurement units.
This manual assumes that hydraulic designers have access to programmable calculators, computer spreadsheets, and specific hydraulic computer programs.
Pipe Drafting and Design.pdf
This book provides students with the basic skills they will need to prepare a wide range of piping drawings. It presents a step-by-step approach to the basic fundamentals students will need to begin a successful career in industrial drafting and design. Chapter One gives a quick overview of the many
opportunities in drafting and design for those who master the basic skills presented in the following chapters. Then each chapter builds on the preceding one. It is necessary therefore to master the concepts in a given chapter before
oing on to the next one. Each chapter concludes with exercises and questions designed to help students review and practice the concepts presented in that chapter.
Pipeline and Risers.pdf
This book is written for engineers who work on pipelines, risers and piping. It summarizes the author’s 18 years research and engineering experience at universities, classification societies and design offices. It is intended to develop this book as a textbook for graduate students, design guidelines for engineers and references for researchers. It is hoped that this book may also be used for design of offshore structures as it mainly addresses applied mechanics and desigdengineering.
Starting from August 1998, the book has been used in a teaching course for MSc. students at Stavanger University College and IBC training course for engineers in pipeline and riser industries.
The preparation of the book is motivated by recent developments in research and engineering and new design codes. There is a need for such a book to educate more pipeline engineers and provide materials for on-job training on the use of new design codes and guides. Thanks is given to my colleagues who have guided me into this field: Prof. Torgeir Moan atNorwegian University of Science and Technology; Prof. Robert Bea and Prof. A. Mansour at University of California at Berkeley; Prof. Preben Temdrup Pedersen at Technical University of Denmark Prof. Tetsuya Yao at Hiroshima University; and Chief Engineer Per A. Damsleth at J P Kenny A/S (Now part of ABB Offshore Systems AS). The friendship and technical advice from these great scientists and engineers have been very helpful to generate basis for this book.
As the Chief Engineer, Per Damsleth has given the author a lot of advice and supports during last years. Managing Director Jan-Erik Olssm and Engineering Manager Gawain Langford of J P Kenny AIS are acknowledged for a friendly and creative atmosphere. Dr. Ruxin Song and Terjer Clausen at Brown & Root Energy Services (Halliburton) are appreciated for their advice on risers and bundles. Jens Chr. Jensen and Mark S@rheim are deeply appreciated for editing assistance during preparation of the book. Senior Vice President Dr. Donald Liu at
ABS provided guidance and encouragement for the completion of this book. Special thanks to my wife, Hua Peng, daughter Lihua and son Carl for their love, understanding and support that have been very important for the author to continue many years of hard work and international traveling in different cultures, languages and working
Professor Yong Bai
Stavanger University College, N-4091 Stavanger, NORWAY and American Bureau of Shipping, Houston, TX 77060, USA
Pipeline corrosion and cathodic protection.pdf
A pipe line buried in the earth represents a challenge. It is made of steel—a strong, but chemically unstable, material—and is placed in an environment which is nonuniform, nonprotective, and nonyielding. It is the duty of the corrosion engineer to study the properties of this system to ensure that the pipe line will not deteriorate.
In 1955, when I was first working on cathodic protection for pipe lines in Saudi Arabia, the first edition of this book by Marshall Parker was just a year old. Fortunately, the company library contained Mr.
Parker’s book. I found its simplicity and directness preferable in approaching a complex subject.
During the 30 years since its publication, generations of pipe line engineers and technicians have used this book as their first exposure to corrosion control. Many books on the subject have been published since 1954, but the Parker book is still the best introduction to the fundamentals. New technology has been developed, yet the principles of cathodic protection are still the same. The result is that we have more sophisticated instruments to use, but the measurements have not changed. Consequently, I have retained the still-valid material of the original Marshall text and made changes only when better and shorter methods are available.
The first task of the pipe line corrosion engineer is to study the properties of the earthen environment. First, we shall learn how to measure the resistivity of the soil as a preparation for further work. In the second chapter we shall study another electrical measurement: potential difference.
To do this, we shall learn about the standard electrode for this measurement. In Chapter 3 we go on to line currents and extend thesemeasurements to current requirement surveys in Chapter 4. Thus, the current necessary to design a cathodic protection system will be calculated. Chapters 5 and 6 show the computations required for the design of an impressed current cathodic protection system. Then, Chapter 7 shows the design procedure for a sacrificial cathodic protection system. The problem of partial cathodic protection of a pipe line by concentrating on “hot spots” is discussed in Chapter 8. A problem in Chapter 9, which does not usually occur nowadays, is that of stray-current corrosion; however, a corrosion engineer should still be able to identify this phenomenon and find its source. Interference (Chapter 10) is a problem
corrosion engineers face every day and are still learning about.
The last two chapters of the book (Chapters 11 and 12) show the operation and maintenance of a cathodic protection system, and how to evaluate the coatings system in place. The Appendixes contain material basic to the knowledge of all corrosion engineers.
At the end of this book, the reader will be well on the way to being a capable corrosion engineer.
Edward G. Peattie
Professor of Petroleum Engineering
Mississippi State University
Pipeline Pigging Technology
THIS SECOND, completely-revised, edition of Pipeline Pigging Technology is essentially a compilation of selected papers presented at the conferences organized by Pipes & Pipelines International and Pipe Line Industry in the UK and the USA between 1988 and 1991. The book is thus a successor to the first edition, published in 1987, and brings readers up-to-date with the
rapidly-developing technology of pipeline pigging.
Although the international pigging industry has unquestionably made major advances in its scope and expertise over the intervening years, it is nevertheless apparent that the comment made in the earlier book – that there is a general lack of knowledge about the use of pipeline pigs of all kinds – is still relevant today. Not only have the conferences at which these papers were presented produced questions such as ‘How do I interpret the results of this intelligent pigging inspection?’, but they also continue to produce the most basic of pigging questions such as ‘Should I use discs or cups?’ or ‘Will foam pigs or rigid pigs work the best in this application?’.
It cannot be claimed that this book will provide readers with the answers to all their questions; indeed, many such answers remain in the experimental field of ‘try it and see’. Nevertheless, we have gathered together in this edition a collection of 33 papers which give a comprehensive overview of the currentsituation, written by respected authors, from whom further information can undoubtedly be readily obtained by seriously-interested readers and organizations.
It is significant to note that, in early October, 1991, the first-ever major research project into the performance of ‘conventional’ pigs was entering its second phase. At the same time, the Pigging Products and Services Association was developing into a healthy organization with increasing membership, while the world’s first long-distance gas pipeline designed with a total commitment to intelligent pigging was being constructed in the North Sea.
These three discrete activities show that the hydrocarbons pipeline industry is paying increasing interest to pigging, which is seen, more-and-more widely, as an important aspect of future pipeline operations.
Readers will find in this book papers that cover subjects more diverse than simply the practicalities of pigging. I make no apology for this, as the basic requirements for pigging have now to be seen in a wider context, the boundaries of which are increasingly being set by legislation. Concepts such
as ‘fitness-for-purpose’ and ‘integrity management’, the practical development of which will allow an operator to manage his pipeline with greater precision and safety, will nevertheless be based on data obtained from successful pigging operations.
On page xii will be found a list of the contributors, together with references to the conferences at which their papers were originally presented. I am greatly indebted to all these authors, both for their willingness to participate in the conferences, and for their agreement to allow their papers to be published in this book.
It should be explained that, although edited as far as possible into a uniform appearance, the papers appear here in the same form as that in which they were originally presented. Any errors are, of course, my own.
John Tiratsoo, October, 1991
Pipeline risk management manua|.pdf
The first edition of this book was written at a time when formal risk assessments of pipelines were fairly rare. To be sure, there were some repairheplace models out there, some maintenance prioritization schemes, and the occasional regulatory approval study, but, generally, those who embarked on a formal process for assessing pipeline risks were doing so for very specific needs and were not following a prescribed methodology.
The situation is decidedly different now. Risk management is increasingly being mandated by regulations. A risk assessment seems to be the centerpiece of every approval process and every pipeline litigation. Regulators are directly auditing risk assessment programs. Risk management plans are increasingly coming under direct public scrutiny.
While risk has always been an interesting topic to many, it is also often clouded by preconceptions of requirements of huge databases, complex statistical analyses, and obscure probabilistic techniques. In reality, good risk assessments can be done even in a data-scarce environment. This was the major premise of the earlier editions. The first edition even had a certain sense of being a risk assessment cookbook-“Here are the
ingredients and how to combine them.” Feedback from readers indicates that this was useful to them.
Nonetheless, there also seems to be an increasing desire for more sophistication in risk modeling. This is no doubt the result of more practitioners than ever before-pushing the boundaries- as well as the more widespread availability of data and the more powerful computing environments that make it easy and cost effective to consider many more details in a risk model. Initiatives are currently under way to generate more complete and useful databases to further our knowledge and to support detailed risk modeling efforts.
Given this as a backdrop, one objective ofthis third edition is to again provide a simple approach to help a reader put together some kind of assessment tool with a minimum of aggravation. However, the primary objective of this edition is to provide a reference book for concepts, ideas, and maybe a few templates covering a wider range of pipeline risk issues and modeling options. This is done with the belief that an idea and reference book will best serve the present needs ofpipeline risk managers and anyone interested in the field. While I generally shy away from technical books that get too philosophical and are weak in specific how-to’s, it is just simply not possible to adequately discuss risk without getting into some social and psychological issues. It is also doing a disservice to the reader to imply that there is only one correct risk anagement
approach. Just as an engineer will need to engage in a give-and-take process when designing the optimum building or
automobile, so too will the designer of a risk assessment/management process.
Those embarking on a pipeline risk management process should realize that, once some basic understanding is obtained, they have many options in specific approach. This should be viewed as an exciting feature, in my opinion. Imagine how mundane would be the practice of engineering if there were little variation in problem solving. So, my advice to the beginner is simple: arm yourself with knowledge, approach this as you
would any significant engineering project, and then enjoy the journey !
Pipeline Rules of Thumb Handbook 5Ed.pdf
structure in position against an overturning force. The most common types of guyed structures are stacks, derricks, masts for draglines, reversible tramways and radio transmission towers.
As a general rule, stresses in guys from temperature changes are neglected, but in structures such as radio masts
this is an important feature and must be subject to special analysis.
The number of guys used for any particular installation is contingent on several variable factors such as type of structure, space available, contour of the ground, etc., and is not a part of this discussion.
It is desirable to space guys uniformly whenever possible. This equalizes the pull, P, on each guy insofar as possible,
particularly against forces which change in direction, as when a derrick boom swings in its circle.
It is also desirable to equalize the erection tensions on the guys. When no external force is acting on the structure, the tension in each guy should be the same. A “Tension Indicator” is sometimes used to determine the tension in guys. If this instrument is not available, the tension can be very closely approximated by measuring the deflection at the center of the span from the chord drawn from the guy anchorage to the point of support on the structure. A good average figure to use for erection tension of guys is 20% of the maximum working tension of the guy.
This discussion outlines the method for determining the stresses in guys. One of the first considerations is the
location of the guy anchorages. The anchorages should be so located that the angle a, between the horizontal plane
and the guy line, is the same for all guys (to equalize erection tensions). Angle a, in good practice, seldom exceeds
45 degrees with 30 degrees being commonly used. The tension in the guys decreases as angle a becomes less. The
direct load on the structure is also less with smaller value of a.
Pump User Handbook.pdf
Now available in its fully revised second edition, this practical guide explains how you can achieve consistently superior run lengths, low maintenance expenditures, and unexcelled safety and reliability in all of your pump applications. Written by two practicing engineers whose combined 80-year working careers included all conceivable facets of pumping technology, this handbook conveys in detail what facilities must do to rapidly accomplish both superior performance and low life-cycle cost for pumps of all types and sizes. Aimed at operating technicians, maintenance professionals, project engineers, reliability engineers and managers, the book is intended for every job function that comes in contact with process pumps. Utilities, power generation facilities, pulp and paper plants, consumer product manufacturers, pharmaceutical plants, mining operations, chemical and petrochemical plants, municipal works, oil and gas pipelines, and oil refineries are among those that can significantly profit from implementing the guidelines described in this unique, experience-based text.
Valve Selection Handbook.pdf
Valves are the controlling elements in fluid flow and pressure systems.
Like many other engineering components, they have developed over ome three centuries from primitive arrangements into a wide range of engineered units satisfying a great variety of industrial needs.
The wide range of valve types available is gratifying to the user because the probability is high that a valve exists that matches the application. But because of the apparently innumerable alternatives, the user must have the knowledge and skill to analyze each application and determine the factors on which the valve can be selected. He or she must also have sufficient knowledge of valve types and their construction to make the best selection from those available.
Reference manuals on valves are readily available. But few books, if any, discuss the engineering fundamentals or provide in-depth information about the factors on which the selection should be made.
This book is the result of a lifelong study of design and application of valves, and it guides the user on the selection of valves by analyzing valve use and construction. The book is meant to be a reference for practicing engineers and students, but it may also be of interest to manufacturers
of valves, statutory authorities, and others. The book discusses manual valves, check valves, pressure relief valves and rupture discs. Revisions in the fourth edition include a full rewriting of the chapters
on pressure relief valves and rupture discs. These revisions take full account of current U.S. practice and the emerging European standards. I wish to express my thanks to the numerous individuals and companies who over the years freely offered their advice and gave permission to use their material in this book. Because the list of the contributors is long, I trust I will be forgiven to mention only a few names:
My thanks go to the late Frank Hazel of Worcester Controls for his contribution to the field of manual valves; in the field of pressure relief valves to Jurgen Stolte and the late Alfred Kreuz of Sempell A.G.; Manfred
Holfelder of Bopp & Reuther G.m.b.H.; and Mr. Gary B. Emerson of Anderson, Greenwood & Co. In the field of rupture discs, my thanks to Tom A. LaPointe, formerly of Continental Disc Corporation, and G. W.
Brodie, formerly a consultant to Marston Palmer Limited.
R. W. Zappe
Nhận link mediafire qua comment để lại mail ( tương tự cho các tài liệu khác)